Semi-public clean car fleet

Basic Information

Mobility solution ID







Thematic areas

Clean & energy-efficient vehicles
  • Electric vehicles
  • Cleaner vehicles
  • Fuelling Infrastructure
  • Cleaner fleets
  • Cleaner fuels


The city of Ghent, in cooperation with car-sharing organisation Cambio, aims to reduce the use of fossil fuel in their car-sharing fleet by using more sustainable alternatives, and will promote clean and energy-efficient vehicles towards a broader public.

Implementing sustainable mobility

Within this measure actions were done to improve the cleanliness of 3 different fleets:

  • car fleet of Cambio (a car sharing service),
  • the fleet of Max Mobiel
  • and the shuttle bus fleet of V-tax, a taxi service which is also subcontractor of MaxMobiel.

Cambio integrated 8 electric cars in its fleet without creating an extra barrier for the people using the cambio car sharing fleet, 4 of them were in Ghent. Also ecodriving courses were provided to 35 cambio users. Cambio also set up a sustainable purchase strategy by extending its calls for tender with a passage on the cleanliness (environment values as CO2, ecoscore). This has a great impact on the cleanliness of the whole cambio fleet. To reduce emissions, Max Mobiel integrated 3 CNG vehicles and one electric vehicle in its own fleet. Max Mobiel also convinced the subcontractor V-Tax to integrating LPG shuttle buses in their fleet.


Cambio will carry out a feasibility study to check whether the use of biodiesel, hybrid vehicles or electric vehicles is the best option in terms of user friendliness, design and technical issues. Following this, the best option will be implemented. One of the cars will be made available at the central train station and it will be promoted to citizens in Ghent and in other cities where Cambio operates a car-sharing service, as all Cambio cars can be used by all clients.

Ecodriving principles will also be introduced via newsletters and also via ecodriving sessions for Cambio staff and users. In order to be able to expand the small scale test with one vehicle towards a larger scale test with multiple electric cars, it is necessary to make adaptations to be able to integrate electric cars fully within the regular car-sharing service. This is a critical factor in the long-term integration of electric cars within the fleet. Since Cambio does not have the expertise, this will be subcontracted to a software provider. This adaptation will enable communication between the cars, their battery, the charging station and the software, thus allowing for the integration of electrical cars into the regular reservation system.  By receiving feedback on the status of the battery it should be possible to see if a car be reserved immediately or should be kept ‘on hold’ because there is not enough battery capacity left.

A survey was carried out among Cambio users on the integration of more environment-friendly cars in the fleet. The results of the survey were very positive and showed that they are interested and willing to drive more ecological cars. Free eco-driving lessons were then organised.  Afterwards participants were asked whether they were interested in being monitored while driving and a measuring device is being installed in the cars of those who said yes to measure the effects of the eco-driving lessons.


Key result 1  – Once cambio users tried out the electric cambio car, they were extremely positive
During the preliminary testing period, the vehicle was only available to the cambio staff, some prospective users among the employees of the city of Ghent and a limited group of cambio users (total group: 45 persons). The experiences of these persons are positive (36,4%) to very positive (63,6%). Curiosity drove many of them to a first trip (17 answers), the results show that the positive experience led to use the electric car again. The respondents cited that it’s pleasant and comfortable driving with an electric car, the only minor aspect is the limited distance you can drive with an electric cambio car (50 km).

Key result 2 – 95 cambio users drove an electric cambio car
In August 2012, in total 495 cambio users requested the ‘authorisation’ to get access to the electric car (significant increase of requests in August 2012). About 95 cambio users already tried out the electric car. The total km driven by the cambio electric car is 5800 km.

Key result 3 – At cambio the fuel consumption is reduced by 15%
An innovative sustainable purchase strategy and the implementation of an electric car lead to decrease of fuel consumption by 0,7 l/100km or a reduction of 15%. The total amount of fuel use was increased due to the extension of the cambio fleet. After BAU analysis, the total fossil fuel use was reduced by 10.171,5 liter  or by 16,3%. Cambio succeeded to exceed the target of reduction of fuel consumption by 5% to 10%.

Key result 4 – Short term impact of ecodriving: -8,5% fuel consumption
After the ecodriving course there was a direct and obvious effect measurable when drivers tried out the offered tips. For 80% of the participants a positive result was noticeable (best result: reduced consumption by 28,1%), for 6% there was no noticeable result and 14% had the worst result: the result was even more negative after the trainings. Overall, however, the average consumption of 5 l/100km dropped to 4,6 l/100km, which is a reduction of 8,5%. Conclusion is that for less frugal drivers it's easier to have 'better' results than drivers who already have good results before the trainings. This ecodriving training measure achieved the target of reducing fuel consumption by 7%. Unfortunately the long term impact of ecodriving training on the fuel consumption cannot be measured as the cambio cars were also used by cambio users who didn’t follow ecodriving trainings.

Key result 5 – Installation of the CNG filling station for the CNG fleet of Max Mobiel
As there are almost no CNG filling stations in Belgium, Max Mobiel installed at end 2011 a private CNG-pump at its own promises. It is expected that the results on fuel consumption and emissions will be positive at end 2012, but  data of 2012 are not available yet. It is expected that at the end of 2012 the targets on fuel consumption and emissions of Max Mobiel will be fully achieved.

Key result 6 – Replacement of V-tax shuttle buses by a LPG version had a positive impact on fuel consumption and emissions



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