Parking Management as a Means of Decreasing Air Pollution in Cities

Basic Information



Latest update



Application time

one month

Assistance required

not needed

Assistance data

traffic counts, parking counts, fleet structure, parking user survey

Tool type

Method / Approach

Application area

  • Analysis, scenarios and measure selection
  • Appraisal and assessment
  • Evaluation and monitoring

Target Audience

  • Medium-sized cities
  • Large cities
  • Metropolitan regions


The tool examines and quantifies possible parking policy contribution to decreasing the air pollution through a reduction in parking search extent, based on parking policy i.e. time limit and price as a common parking management policy in central areas. The outcome of the tool is the selection of the appropriate policy that will solve the parking problem while decreasing the negative environmental impacts of cruising.

In order to achieve the aim, three models were used in the tool: first, multinominal logit model that links the parking policy with the demand, i.e. volume and occupancy (Simićević et al., 2013); then ordinal regression model that links (among others) parking occupancy with an average parking search time; and finally Copert 5 model which determines, based on total search time (obtained by models one and two) and a referent car, the reduction in polluters’ emissions.

To test the tool we used the data gathered in central Belgrade area. Results prove the significant impact of parking policy (time limit and price levels) on the amount of emitted polluters, which verifies the initial hypotheses. This tool can assist policymakers in a transparent decision-making process on the basis of empirical data and modelling results.

To apply the tool in your city, please contact the Jelena Simicevic, University of Belgrade (see contact details below).

Good Example

Based on the results of the case study in Belgrade central area, it was found that underpriced on-street parking causes longer search time and therefore more important air pollution.

Just by balancing the on- and off-street parking prices, bringing them on the same level, the average search time would decrease by 32%, and CO2 and NOx emissions by 14.1% and 14.2% respectively.

More restrictive on-street time limits encourage greater use of off-street parking and thus decrease cruising for parking and air pollution.

These findings should encourage policymakers to implement parking policy within the environmental protection framework, and researchers to deal with this topic and promote it accordingly.

Thematic areas

Demand & urban space management
  • Access restrictions and management
  • Road pricing
  • Parking management and pricing

Behavioural change & mobility management
  • Mobility marketing and awareness raising
  • Mobility Planning


University of Belgrade - Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering / Jelena Simicevic, Nada Milosavljevic and Vladimir Momcilovic

j.simicevic [at]

+381 11 3091290

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