Biogas and CNG in municipal fleets
For the first time in the Balearics Region, Palma introduced clean vehicles on a large scale. Initially an evaluation of the introduction of lower-polluting vehicles in public service fleets of the public transport company EMT and the municipal company for water and sewerage (EMAYA) has taken place. This measure has been extended by the procurement of 8 GNC waste collection trucks and the conversion of 15 diesel trucks, 2 waste collections trucks and 1 mini-van to CNG trucks. Also a CNG refueling station has been built and plans for a biogas plant were completed.
Implementing sustainable mobility
Besides small-scale initiatives with biodiesel in some of the other municipalities in Mallorca, there had not been any large-scale implementation of clean vehicles before DYN@MO. It was expected that the large-scale introduction of CNG in the municipal fleets would have a high visibility of clean vehicles in Palma and therefore on the whole island.
The main objectives of this measure were to:
- Prepare the introduction of CNG buses in the urban public transport fleet.
- Evaluate emissions and energy use of the 12 CNG buses that are already in operation
- Implement a biogas production plant at a municipal landfill site and make the biogas available at a new CNG filling station
- Purchase 8 new CNG trucks and convert 22 waste collection trucks so they can run on CNG and biogas.
- Reduce noise emissions
- Reduce annual emissions of pollutants compared to new diesel buses
- Raise awareness about alternative fuels among citizens and other fleet operators
Planning & preparation
During the planning phase the following tasks were carried out:
- Design of CNG filling station and biogas plant. Preparation of the tender documentation
- Selection of the most suitable bus routes for the CNG buses based on the ex-ante evaluation
- Data collection about emissions and performance of the 12 CNG buses (including end of pipe emission measurements)
- Preparation of public tender documents for the acquisition of 8 CNG trucks and the conversion of 22 diesel trucks to CNG
Implementation & demonstration
- Introduction of 8 new CNG trucks for waste collection and operation (purchase funded outside CIVITAS)
- Conversion of 22 diesel trucks to CNG and demonstration of their use in normal operation
- Implementation of biogas plant and CNG filling station by EMAYA (purchase funded outside CIVITAS)
- Data collection about performance and emissions of the new CNG waste collection trucks
- End-of-pipe emission measurements on the buses to be compared with specifications from manufacturer
- Conversion of 15 diesel trucks, 2 waste collections trucks and 1 mini-van to CNG
- 12+ 50 CNG Buses in operation
- 1 Awareness campaign on CNG cleaner transport 1 Workshop for fleet operators to explain the experiences with and advantages of CNG
- Report on emission measurements
- 2 evaluation surveys about public transport satisfaction with CNG/DIESEL
- Introduction of 5 CNG trucks and 3 biofuel vehicles (gas and diesel) into EMAYA’s fleet (municipal company for water and sewerage)
- Study of pollutant emissions from 12 CNG buses showed benefit to cost ratio of 4:1 over 15 years, compared to diesel buses
- All studies for the introduction of a biogas plant have been done
Expected outcomes in the short- to medium-term:
- Reduced noise emissions (Noise outside the vehicle: 37% reduction compared to new diesel buses; Noise inside the vehicle: 65% reduction compared to new diesel buses)
- Improved noise perception
- Reduced annual emissions of pollutants compared to new diesel buses. Annual savings in tonnes with operation in Palma bus network will be 62,89 tonnes of CO; 6,04 tonnes of HC; 143,75 tonnes of NOx and 1,94 tonnes of PM10.
Expected outcomes in the mid- to long-term:
- Wider uptake of alternative fuels on the island of Mallorca
- Improved air quality