Madeira Island in the North Atlantic is part of the Madeira Archipelago and the main city is Funchal. Approximately 2/3 of the island is a natural park and almost the whole island is covered by Levadas (man-made water channels with pathways). Madeira is a well-known tourist destination, that annually hosts an average of 1,6 million tourists arriving by plane and 533 thousand by cruise ship.
The Region landscape is mountainous and is characterised by narrow and steep streets. Locals and visitors deal with the lack of proper sidewalks on some streets, conditions that discourages people from walking and cycling. On the other hand, over the last years, accessibility conditions to cars were improved, which made travel by individual means more appealing. As a result, the island witnessed a significant change in the mobility patterns of residents and tourists, with a big increase of car users (from 37% to 59%) and a decrease of public transport passengers (from 27% to 21%), between 2001 and 2011.