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Sustainable freight logistics

Ljubljana

Ljubljana created a new logistics model for better freight transport in the city, available on web portal for sustainable delivery and established a local freight partnership. The aim is to promote sustainable city logistics.

Implementing sustainable mobility

To complement the long-term planning of measures aimed at reducing freight traffic, Ljubljana developed a computer simulation of efficient distribution of goods in a demonstration area. Through this demonstration based on computer simulations, sustainable freight logistics have been promoted and show stakeholders the benefits and positive impacts that the measures related to freight consolidation would bring, if they were implemented.

The computer simulation comprised testing of consolidated deliveries based on field survey data, traffic counting, etc. It has been demonstrated how by implementing the measures included in the computer simulation, the delivery of goods within the city would render more energy efficient and would result in reduced air and noise pollution.

A national web portal for support and promotion of sustainable city logistics has been developed (www.dostave.si) and includes research activities for its development and for the contents of the portal (information about sustainable freight logistics, cases of good practices, various questionnaires etc.). Online routing tool for deliveries in Ljubljana as a part of an internet web portal includes online calculations of optimal routes for navigation into the city centre and calculation of optimal paths in the pedestrian zones. It helps delivery companies to perform more optimal deliveries. Interactive map includes locations of parking spaces for delivery vehicles, physical barriers and entry points into the city centre, charging stations for electric vehicles and pictures with detailed information. This approach is based on cooperation between city authorities, transport companies and local economic entities.

The main objectives of the measure:

  • Transport research on goods flows in the demonstration area and determination of transport policy measures for sustainable city logistics;
  • Development of computer model simulating efficient distribution of goods in a demonstration area, mainly in the city centre (reduction of emissions, distance travelled by vehicles and reduced energy consumption by 10 - 20 percent);
  • Establishment of a national internet web portal for promotion and support to sustainable city logistics,
  • Online routing tool (interactive map) to support delivery companies in finding optimal deliveries routes in the city centre.
How did the measure progress?

Ljubljana has started the measure with a research on freight traffic in the city centre in order to get better view and to recognize the problems in the field of freight delivery in Ljubljana. As part of the project implementation a research on freight traffic in the city centre of Ljubljana was performed in 2009. Traffic flows of freight vehicles on the main city roads were processed and analysed on a daily and yearly basis. The analysis was based on data from electronic traffic counters. Further delivery vehicles in selected pedestrian zones were analysed.

The data has been collected at entrance points and included the duration of performed deliveries, EURO emission standards, loading capacities and other important parameters for traffic planning and possible optimization of freight deliveries. In order to recognise the possibilities to implement sustainable transport policy measures spatial distribution of retailers and small companies in the city centre has been taken into account, as well. The web-portal for promotion of sustainable freight logistics with freight transport simulation (www.dostave.si) is to date fully operating and feedback on its usefulness is being collected. Satisfaction of users is higher than expected.

In year 2012 a traffic model of consolidated delivery was designed with special software for traffic modeling. The inputs for the transport model were the data collected with traffic observing and counting at the entry points into the city centre and included number of deliveries in the city centre, estimated weight of goods delivered and delivery time (loading, unloading), type of vehicles and cargo, calculation of energy consumption, measuring and calculating pollutant emissions. I the simulated area the emissions could be reduced up to 20 %.

During the project also several events for measure promotion have been organised including a three day training lessons for efficient freight delivery (April 2012) and national conference on sustainable freight delivery in Ljubljana (June 2012).

What were the outcomes of the measure?

Within this measure a web portal on sustainable freight delivery, the first of its kind in Slovenia, was established. It also includes a route calculator for the most efficient goods distribution. The web portal already had more than 8,500 visits from April to July 2012. The measure leading partner has already confirmed that it will continue to run the web portal for at least two years after the end of the ELAN project. The trainings for drivers of delivery vehicles operating in the city centre and the established cooperation with the shopkeepers association make it reasonable to assume that the implementation of sustainable freight logistics in the city centre might be achieved in the near future.

The model results show, that with consolidation implemented, the CO2 emissions are reduced by 5.34 kg/day or 17.6%. NOx emissions are reduced by 26 g or 18%. Emissions of particulate matter PM10 are reduced by 1.3 g or 17.8%. Fuel consumption decreases by 2.2 litres per day or 17.7%. Based on annual data from the consolidation of goods on the pedestrian area 1 420 kg of CO2, 7 kg of NOx emissions, 0.34 kg of particulate matter PM10, and 595 litres of fuel could be saved. The levels of emissions after consolidation of deliveries would be reduced by 17 to 18%, which means that the objective of the project CIVITAS ELAN would be achieved.
The results indicate that a reduction in the number of freight movements of 18% can be expected. As the difference with the target value (20%) is low, it can be stated that the results of the transport model have reached the set target of reducing the number of runs in the pedestrian area of the city centre of Ljubljana. Decrease in the number of kilometres driven is estimated at approximately 18000, which accounts for 34.3% reduction. The number of kilometres driven by electric vehicles is not taken into consideration.The implementation of a consolidated freight scheme is expected to lead to a reduction of approximately 18% in fuel consumption can be expected if the consolidation scheme is implemented.

The results of the acceptance of the consolidation scheme alternatives by the stakeholders show a high level of acceptance 67.5-100%, however the results possess a significant amount of uncertainty in terms of depicting the true acceptance rate of the stakeholders, since the response rate was poor (only 8 out of 50 questionnaires were returned). The results for the acceptance by the public show a large acceptance of the web portal as well as large acceptance/awareness of the freight delivery related problems, namely over 86% find the current situation as inappropriate. However it should be taken into account that the sample of the respondents included mainly the interested public. Moreover, the result show an increased acceptance regarding the taxation of non-clean vehicles (31.7%) and slightly increased rate of acceptance of the consolidation scheme (29.3%), compared to the general public survey results (taxation – 13.7%; consolidation – 25.6%).

The number of web portal visitors per month has significantly increased since the first month of use – from 1230 visits/month in March 2012 to over 4000 visits/month in August 2012. The comparison of results for web-portal visits on month-by month basis show some fluctuation, but it can be established that the target level of 20% monthly increase has been reached/exceeded.

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