In order to understand the implementation of this measure in Zagreb it is essential to cast the light on few barriers:
Barrier 1 – commitment of key stakeholders – lack of cooperation between different stakeholders caused insufficient consensus on consolidated delivery. Specifically, private store and restaurant owners were reluctant toward the measure and the concept of joined delivery which was later reflected on the level of their participation.
Barrier 2 – stakeholder (user) acceptance – apart from joined delivery, in the pilot project phase it was planned to introduce higher fees for those business subjects who do not comply with new access restrictions.
Barrier 3 – complexity of the problem to be solved – a lot of stakeholders were involved in the implementation of this measure (shopkeepers, delivery companies, restaurants, city authority etc.). Finding the agreeable solutions for everyone, in the end, represented the unreachable objective. Lessons Learned
Based on this experience we are able to outline few lessons learned:
Lesson 1 – Importance of stakeholder cooperation at all levels. The measure failed in its implementation mainly because of the lack of cooperation between different stakeholders (abovementioned barrier 1 and 2). When the main measure objective is to introduce some form of restrictions or when it is necessary to reduce/terminate current privileges, the importance of measure stakeholders is significant. Even if this measure would have been implemented, its usage in the operational phase depends on the stakeholders. Of course, it is always possible to be indifferent to the users of the measure and, in this case, frequently collect money from penalties. However, that approach can hardly be considered as a form of public partnership which is one of the key points of entire ELAN project.
Lesson 2 – Timing for citizens’ engagement. To ensure and cherish this cooperation one of the key tools can be citizens’ engagement. However, the timing has to be right. Specifically, citizens’ engagement activities have to start at the beginning of the project and this was not the case in this measure. Note that the implementation of this measure depended only on support of the several departments within the city municipality. Everything was prepared and agreed upon, but the coordinated scheme was never implemented. However, had the critical mass been reached, it would have probably sped up the necessary decisions.
Lesson 3 – Start small and build up. Even though the measure was stopped, it might be possible to implement the same measure on another location (not immediately in the narrow centre of city). For instance, if the measure would have been implemented in some other part of the city, where there is less demand for delivery, maybe it would be easier to convince decision-makers and other stakeholders that it is a good idea to try to implement similar activities in the centre of the city.