Demand management strategies can reduce traffic through a variety of economic incentives, regulatory measures and modern communication technologies. Strategies for demand versus supply management are one of the arrowheads of Bologna’s current traffic policies. As part of the CIVITAS Initiative, the city has tested a range of demand management measures to explore the merit of different initiatives and share lessons learned. These include access restrictions, road pricing, parking policies and marketing campaigns. Pricing strategies in particular can work as powerful incentives to get people to try cleaner modes of transport and make the private car a less appealing choice.